An air hammer is a powerful tool that makes a job easy and fast. It is somehow challenging to buy the perfect one because there are various brands and sizes available. For this purpose, we put this 2019 review together to help you find the Best Air Hammers on the market. We x-rayed a list of six of the best pneumatic hammers on the market.
An air hammer or pneumatic hammer or air chisel is a tool that uses pressurized air to perform diverse functions. The pressurized air in the power tool drives a hammerhead back and forth several thousand times a second. Its primary use is to cut through, smooth or shape surface areas. It comes in varieties of sizes, from the small hand-held ones to the large heavy-duty ones.
- Impact Wrench Vs. Impact Driver Vs. Hammer Drill: Reviews & Comparison (2020)
- Best Demolition Hammers for Tile Removal/Digging: 2020 Reviews and Guide
- Best Rock Hammer, Best Brick Hammer for Sale: 2020 Reviews and Guide
No matter the size, this handy tool will make your work easy, fast, and efficient. With an air hammer, a job that should take several hours or even days to complete will take only a few hours or minutes. Technicians, handymen, artisans, use this tool and so on. Air chisels are very useful; in fact, they are one of the most valuable power tools.
They have varieties of uses and can handle diverse operations. What you must do is to change the bits, and the hammer will assume another form. For instance, if you switch the bit to a chisel, you can use it to cut away surfaces.
However, if you change it to a smoothing hammer, you can use it beat uneven surfaces.
- 1 Top 6 Best Air Hammers for Front End Work and Automotive Work
- 2 What Features to Look for in the Most Powerful Air Hammers
- 3 How Does Air Hammers Work?
- 4 Will an Air Hammer Break Concrete?
- 5 Why Use an Air Hammer?
- 6 FAQs about Air Hammers
- 6.1 Q: Can I still use my air hammer is the chisel is dull?
- 6.2 Q: Are air hammers safe?
- 6.3 Q: Can chisels or other attachments break?
- 6.4 Q: Quick-change retainers: what do they do?
- 6.5 Q: While using my air hammers I develop hand fatigue, what is the solution?
- 6.6 Q: Can you explain BPM (blow per minute)?
- 6.7 Q: Why is there water in my air lines during summer?
- 7 Final Thoughts
- 8 Why Choose us?
Top 6 Best Air Hammers for Front End Work and Automotive Work
Having the best tool in your toolbox is as essential as having the right gas in your car tank. With the best, you get value for your money, and your job results satisfying. Selecting the best tool is not easy if you do not know the specifications to consider. The challenge of buying the device is more if you are a first-time buyer.
|Ingersoll Rand 114GQC||- 3-piece chisel set|
- Highly Efficient design
- Ergonomic Design
|Chicago CP7150||- Low noise|
- Ergonomic Handle
- Seamless Accessory Changes
|Ingersoll Rand 121Q||- Built-in power regulator & trigger-touch control|
- Easy to maintain
|Astro 4980 0.498||- Performs excellent riveting, installation, or removal of I-beam suspension|
|Ingersoll Rand 118MAXK||- Anti-Vibration|
- Maximum Power
- Efficiency Supreme
|Chicago CP717||- For heavy-duty jobs |
- Purpose built structure
Ingersoll Rand Air Hammer 114GQC
The 114GQQC is a standard-duty air hammer that comes with three-piece chisel set. It is handy and perfect for general repairs, cutting metals, fixing exhaust system, chipping, and scraping surfaces. The 114GQC is a quality product of Ingersoll Rand, a company in existence for over 100 years. Ingersoll Rand manufactures innovative and top-notch products.
|Air Consumption @ load||20 CFM|
|Average air consumption||4 CFM|
|Blows per Minute||3,500|
|Chisel Shank Diameter||401″|
|Piston Stroke Length||2 5/8″|
|Stroke Length||5 CFM|
|Warranty||1 year limited|
- Chisel set: It comes with a 3-piece chisel set for multipurpose work. The chisel set includes – a flat chisel, panel cutter, and tapered punch.
- Highly Efficient design: The hammer is designed to work with maximum efficiency. It comes with a quick-change retainer that makes for a fast and easy change of chisel.
- Ergonomic Design: The 114GQC has an award-winning ergonomic design for better grip and comfort during use.
- Durable: The barrel construction is alloyed steel for longer life. Besides, its piston construction in heat-treated for durability.
Enough reading, go to Amazon now and get yours here:
Chicago Pneumatic CP7150 Air Hammer
The CP7150 is the product of Chicago Pneumatic, a renowned name in the pneumatic tool industry. The company has been in business since 1889 providing high-quality products. Their CP7150 is a pneumatic hammer with a difference. It is packed with extra power to break concrete, steel or metals.
It comes with a long barrel and equipped with chisels and springs for multipurpose use. As powerful as it is, the sound of the CP7150 in minimal, this is due to its integral muffler. The muffler affords it the capability to minimize its exhaust sound. It is fast and rugged.
It has a perfect power to weight ratio for shock work, body shop jobs, pipe removal, scraping of rust and light front-end tasks.
|Blows per Minute||2100|
|Chisel Shank Diameter||401″|
|Piston Stroke Length||3 ½ “|
|Stroke Length||5 CFM|
- Powerful Tool: It comes with a long piston that gives longer strokes for increased force per blow.
- Low noise: the integral muffler of the CP7150 minimizes the exhaust sound it produces.
- Rugged Construction: The CP7150 is a robust and sturdy piece of equipment. It is handy for heavy-duty work.
- The contact parts of the construction of the tool come heat-treated for durability and ruggedness.
- Seamless Accessory Changes: The CP7150 comes with a spring retainer, which aids simple accessory change.
- Ergonomic Handle: The CP7150, being a heavy-duty machine, comfort is vital while in use. When using the tool, to provide the needed comfort, the unit comes with an ergonomic handle for the ease of users.
Do you want this pneumatic hammer? Get is on Amazon here:
Ingersoll Rand 121Q Super Duty Air Hammer
The Ingersoll Rand 121Q Super Duty supplies up to 3,000 blows per minute – such a mighty pneumatic hammer. It comes fitted with a professional trigger control and comes with a built-in power regulator. Here is another quality product of Ingersoll Rand, a company in existence for over 100 years. They manufacture innovative and top-notch products.
Their products are high quality, reliable and durable. The unit is fast in handling body panel crimping and cutting, bushing and general front-end work.
|Air Consumption @ load||15 CFM|
|Air inlet||1/4 in.|
|Average air consumption||3 CFM|
|Blows per Minute||3,000|
|Chisel Shank Diameter||401″|
|Stroke Length||2 9/32″|
- Barrel: The barrel construction is sturdy alloy steel to last long.
- Maintenance: The 121Q is easy to maintain as it includes “easy out” throttle valve assembly.
- Controls and Regulators: The unit comes with built-in power regulator and trigger-touch control.
You can order this tool here on Amazon:
Astro Pneumatic Tool 4980 0.498” Shank Super Duty Air Hammer/Riveter
The Astro 4980 Pneumatic Tool is a unit loaded with maximum power! It comes super equipped for heavy-duty work for off-road, industrial, or automotive. As a riveter, the 4980, performs excellent riveting, installation, or removal of I-beam suspension. The unit is also useful in heavy-duty servicing of trucks bushings, kingpins, springs, etc.
Astro Pneumatic Tool Co. has been in business for over 40 years importing products into the US. Their products include known tools, equipment, and innovative new items.
|Average air consumption||CFM|
|Blows per Minute||3000|
- The shank allows for multiple changes of chisel
- It offers much power to complete the majority of jobs
Order this tool on Amazon here:
Ingersoll Rand 118 MAXK Long Barrel Air Hammer Kit
The Ingersoll Rand 118 MAXK is a heavy-duty unit manufactured for highest performance and maximum comfort. When you talk of power, it has it – with 15 percent, more power than a standard air hammer. With all that power, it is normal to think the device would vibrate like crazy. However, the unit comes equipped with anti-vibration feature.
That feature absorbs and reduces the vibration of the tool by more than 30 percent. The device comes with a 5-piece chisel set and a carrying case for ease of transporting. The name Ingersoll Rand is synonymous with quality. The 118 MAXK is a quality product of Ingersoll Rand, a company in existence for over 100 years. They manufacture innovative and top-notch products.
|Air Consumption @ load||6 CFM|
|Average air consumption||9 CFM|
|Blows per Minute||3000|
|Chisel Shank Diameter||498″|
- Maximum Power: The 118MAXK comes loaded with maximum power when compared to standard air hammers. Its impact force is 15 percent higher than regular hammers.
- Anti-Vibration: The unit comes with anti-vibration feature to prevent it from excessive vibration. When compared to other air chisels, its vibration is 30 percent lower. The anti-vibration feature makes the 118 MAXK comfortable to use.
- Efficiency Supreme: the unit makes working fast and seamless. When you must switch chisels between jobs, it should not be a problem. The quick-change retainer makes changing fast.
- 5-piece chisel set: the unit comes with a 5-piece chisel set for multitasks.
You need MAX Power, get it here on Amazon:
Chicago Pneumatic CP717 Super Duty Air Hammer
The Chicago Pneumatic CP717 is the most potent air hammer, little wonder why they call it ‘Super Duty.’ It is useful for automotive, truck and off-road equipment. Its shank is a whopping .498” making it suitable for heavy-duty assignments.
The unit works well for front-end jobs, king-pin, bushing removal, and installation of bulldozer walking beams, removal of truck springs and heavy-duty spring bushings. It comes with a positive action trigger for precise control.
The CP717 is a product of the household name, Chicago Pneumatic a company famous in the Pneumatic tool industry. The company has been existing since 1889 and has the heart for the industry in general providing innovative solutions.
|Air Consumption @ load||7 CFM|
|Air inlet||1/4″ (NPTF)|
|Average air consumption||13 CFM|
|Blows per Minute||1,800|
|Chisel Shank Diameter||498″|
|Piston Stroke Length||2 11/16″|
- Power: It comes packed with power to handle heavy-duty jobs such as automotive, truck and off-road jobs.
- Control: It comes fitted with positive action trigger which aids precise control
- Purpose built structure: the chisel shank diameter is large enough to absorb the extra power. The piston stroke’s construction is for larger for heavy-duty tasks.
You can order this tool as an addition to your toolbox from Amazon here:
What Features to Look for in the Most Powerful Air Hammers
This section will educate you on important features to consider before buying an air hammer. The decision to buy a pneumatic hammer is an important one, so treat it as such. You would not like to buy a tool that collapses at the peak of your task. The following tips will help you in making the right decision in purchasing the perfect air hammer for your project.
Power is a significant requirement of an air hammer, and its adequacy is needed for it to work optimally. Tasks range from simple to demanding ones – whichever, the air hammer should be up to the task. Medium-duty air hammers can handle light tasks such as cutting light body panels or any other light work. On the other hand, heavy-duty air hammers designs are for complex and demanding jobs.
The power of the air chisel measures in blows per minute, i.e., the number of blows the tool can deliver per minute. The lower the blow per minute (BPM), the more powerful the tool will be. Whichever air chisel you choose, just make sure it is equal to the task.
For light tasks, a medium-duty short barrel hammer will suffice. However, a heavy-duty long barrel hammer is adequate for demanding jobs.
The length of the barrel of a pneumatic hammer determines the task it can handle. The barrel length is either short or long, and each has its purpose. Heavy-duty tools come with long barrels, which are suitable for heavy and demanding jobs. Short barrel medium-duty tools are ideal for light tasks like removing wheel studs, cutting metal sheet, etc.
For best performance, the air compressor of the pneumatic hammer must be compatible with the air hammer PSI airflow. If you are shopping for commercial use, you need fast recovery compressors as a must. Fast recovery compressors are compatible with all pneumatic hammers and other air tools.
Triggers are a vital part of the air hammer because they control the operation of the tool. Different air hammers come with different type of triggers. However, the safest kind of trigger is the progressive trigger. Progressive triggers give tools perfect control by the user.
When using an air chisel with a progressive trigger, it protects the user from potential bodily harm because of the control he wields over the tool.
Before you make your final decision, be sure you check the manufacturer’s warranty on the tool you are about to buy. Guarantees go a long way to save you costs or repairs. A good warranty covers your device in case of a breakdown during the first several months of purchase. The length of warranty varies from one manufacturer to the other – ranging from few months to a year and above.
Bits and Attachments
Air hammers are versatile tools, and that is adaptable with various tips for versatile work. With several tips, you can perform varieties of tasks. These include chisel tips made for cutting or scoring and hammer tips for shaping and smoothing. While some pneumatic hammers come with few attachments, others come with many.
The following are Available Tips on the Market:
- Ball Joint Separators
- Flat Chisel/Flat Cutter
- Pickle Forks
- Pitman Arm Pullers
- Pointed Bits and Pin Bits
- Sheet Metal Trimmer
- Smoothing Hammer
- Spot Weld Breaker
- Straight Punch Chisels, Bolt Breaker Bits & Drift Sets
- Tie Rod Pullers
- V-Shaped Chisel/Tapered Punch
Many air hammers come with few bits while others come with a little more. Now, where the supply of attachments lacks a solution is where to purchase high-quality carbon steel bits. Availability of bits set will prolong the life of your tool because you will use each for its exact purpose.
Hence, if you use the wrong tip for the wrong job, it will have a negative impact on the tool. The adverse effects on the device will lead to the reduction of the life of the instrument.
A retainer is the part of an air chisel that holds the bits and attachment steady when the tool is working. Retainers are of two types:
- Spring Retainers: These standard retainers come with most air-hammers.
- Quick-Change Retainers: These retainers make for a fast change of bits. Although some air chisels come with these retainers, they are available separately mostly. For instance, the Ingersoll Rand 118 MAXK comes with the Quick-Change Retainer for ease of change of bits.
The shank diameter gives an air-hammer the strength it needs to perform at highest ability. Usually, the standard shank diameter is .401 inches while a heavy-duty shank is of diameter .498 inches. A standard shank might not be able to survive heavy-duty task – it would break or wear out speedily. You should consider the intended work before deciding which of the pneumatic hammer to buy.
There you have them, essential tips that will guide your decision when you are considering buying your very own air hammer. Ensure you do not leave any out because a power tool is not like any regular tool.
|Ingersoll Rand Air Hammer||Snap-On Air Hammer||Mac Tools Air Hammer|
Ingersoll Rand, an Irish global diversified industrial manufacturing company, came into being in 1905.
The company was the product of a 1905 merger of the two rival companies Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Company and Rand Drill Company.
Ingersoll, incorporated in Dublin, Ireland but has its US operations headquarters in Davidson, North Carolina.
Today the company is still making waves with high-quality products.
Snap-On, an American company was founded in 1920 in a city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin State in the US.
However, in 1930, the company moved to the city of Kenosha, Wisconsin.
Joseph Johnson and William Seidemann founded the company to manufacture and market ten sockets that would “snap on” to five interchangeable handles.
Then, their slogan was "5 do the work of 50." The company has come a long way to what it is today.
Now the company is a designer, manufacturer, and marketer of high-end tools and equipment for professional use.
Mac Tools, formerly Mechanic Tool and Forge Company commenced the business of manufacturing high-quality mechanic's tools in Sabina, Ohio.
The company incorporated in Ohio on July 11, 1938. The company grew over time, and in 1961, its name changed from the former name to Mac Tools.
Stanley Works bought Mac Tools in 1980 to become part of a group including Stanley Tools, Proto, Facom, and Blackhawk.
With headquarters in Westerville, Ohio, US, Mac Tools, manufactures and markets professional tools and related equipment.
118 MAXK Long Barrel:
- This extended barrel hammer is a heavy-duty unit manufactured for highest performance and maximum comfort.
- It is perfect for exhaust and front-end jobs, general bolt cutting, pin driving and body shearing jobs. It comes with a convenient case plus 5-piece chisel set.
- The vibration of this tool comes reduced by over 30 percent above standard air hammers due to Anti-vibration feature installed on it.
- To further, give more comfort for extended use the grip is Ergonomic.
- This hammer's impact force is 15 percent over standard air hammers.
- It comes with Quick-change retainer that makes for faster chisel switch, so you can get the job done without waiting.
This extended barrel Super-Duty hammer has the following features:
- Equipped with dual elastomeric cushions which absorb shock and vibration to reduce user fatigue
- Four-position built-in air regulator varies power for different applications.
- It comes with direct multi-port front exhaust which keeps air and debris away from the user
- It comes with PH200D Quick-Change Chuck Retainer.
- It has airline screen which keeps particles from clogging the trigger mechanism
- It has variable-speed soft-touch trigger flexibility and greater control.
- Phenolic (Kevlar® reinforced) flutter disc provides long life
MPH1911 Long Barrel:
This long hammer has the following features:
- It comes with Quick-change retainer for seamless bit change.
- It has a variable-speed trigger for flawless speed control.
- Its forward-handle design improves balance. It also makes for ergonomics for a comfortable grip.
- It comes equipped with comfortable rubber grip, which absorbs vibration.
When the vibration is consumed, it leads to increased comfort and maximum grip during operation.
- It comes with Anti-vibration feature that minimizes shock during use.
- Blows Per Minute: 2,500
- Stroke Length: 3.5"
- Weight: 4.6 lbs.
- Warranty: 1 year
- Blows Per Minute: 2,500
- Stroke Length: 3"
- Weight: 5.9 lbs.
- Warranty: 1 year
- Blows Per Minute: 2,400
- Stroke Length: 3-/4"
- Weight: 1 lbs.
- Warranty: 2 year
How Does Air Hammers Work?
This power tools purpose is to replace the traditional chisel and hammer. It employs the same principle of the hammer and chisel to work. However, instead of human strength hitting the chisel, compressed air is the cause that drives the hammer.
The compressed air used by this power tool flows through a hose connected to a large tank. The tank pumps air that drives the pistons causing them to move. Read further to discover the modus operandi of this tool.
The pistons location is in the cylinder within the tool. That is the only part of the hammer that moves by the power of the air. Compressed air forces into the cylinder so that the piston moves up and down just like a hammer in working motion. In the up and down motion, the piston causes a valve to open which allows compressed air to pass into the cylinder.
The air now pushes the piston, and when it reaches the top, air flows from above the cylinder and pushes the piston down. While the piston reaches the bottom, air flows from below and pushes it upwards. The upwards and downwards motion of the piston by the compressed air keeps the piston moving at the set speed.
The Drill Bit
The drill bit is a metal bar at the bottom of the cylinder. It controls the speed and force of the piston. When the piston is moving, it hits the drill bit; the drill bit then pushes to the surface to drill. The piston and the drill bit move in opposite direction to each other.
Every time the piston moves downwards, and it hits the drill bit, it pushes upwards again. As the piston moves upwards, the drill bit advances downwards into its housing. Note that the drill bit and the piston obey the Newton’s Third Law of Motion. The Law states: “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.” The two forces move in equal but opposite strength and direction.
Tips and Bits
Air hammers as we know are versatile tools. They can perform a catalog of actions using various tips or heads known as also as the drill bit. Different bits are for different tasks. For instance, the chisel tip is for cutting or scoring surfaces while the hammer tip is for shaping or smoothing materials.
Will an Air Hammer Break Concrete?
The answer to the question, “Will an air hammer break concrete?” is an obvious yes. An air hammer used in varieties of ways depending on the bits at the tip of the tool. An air chisel can carry out minor concrete work.
However, for significant concrete demolition, a jackhammer is your best bet. Jackhammers are more potent than pneumatic hammers.
A pneumatic hammer is useful for small concrete surfaces since its bits are not suitable for long-term concrete demolition. The jackhammer, on the other hand, has bits strong enough for that type of task. Should you need to employ your air hammer to break concrete, you would need a Pointed Bit and Pin Bits.
The Pointed Bit and Pin Bits are drill bits that have a point at the end as the name suggests. You use them for breaking, chipping, and demolishing concrete, tiles, stonework, rendered walls, and stones.
Why Use an Air Hammer?
An air hammer’s purpose is for various tasks and use no thanks to the bits and attachments that go with the tool.
The following are the uses of an air hammer:
- Automotive work: their primary purpose is in the automotive industry for bodywork, front-end work, and suspension work.
- Joint work: the purpose is in the separation of ball joints and other joints to loosen them or even take them apart.
- Masonry work: stonework is easy with air hammers. Their purpose is in chipping, shaping, and removing loose brick or stonework.
- Metal Work: for seamless metal modification, an air hammer comes handy. Their primary use is in smoothing and cutting metal.
To further explore the uses of an air hammer, let us consider the use of various bits:
- Ball Joint Separators: you used this bit to separate ball joints of automobiles. This bit has the form of a bulldog clamp.
- Flat Chisel/Flat Cutter: this is the most common of all the bits. Their primary use is for cutting, chipping, and separating materials, metal, and joints. They exist in the form of the broad, narrow, and extra-long chisel.
- Pickle Forks: Used to separate common joints and arms in front-end work.
- Pitman Arm Pullers: are clamps that have the form of a “C” and used for working on pitman’s arms.
- Pointed Bits and Pin Bits:They have points on end, and workers use them in stone and brickworks.
- Sheet Metal Trimmer: used in cutting and trimming metal sheets. It has a separated pronged end.
- Smoothing Hammer: just like the name, it is used is in smoothening metal surfaces. It has a flat hammer end to pound and flattens metal surfaces into perfection.
- Spot Weld Breaker: this has a chisel-end with a crescent shape in the middle of the chisel. Used in breaking and chipping welds and slag.
- Straight Punch Chisels, Bolt Breaker Bits & Drift, Sets: these have a flat or cylindrical end and used in breaking bolts, joints, sockets, nuts and so on.
- Tie Rod Pullers: are for removing and separating tie rods. It looks like a clamp.
- V-Shaped Chisel/Tapered Punch: for cutting metal sheets
FAQs about Air Hammers
Q: Can I still use my air hammer is the chisel is dull?
A: No. Please do not use a dull chisel or bit on with your unit. Ensure you dress or file it to the original shape and angle. If that does not help, buy another chisel set entirely. Dull chisel or bit creates stress on the unit which will shorten the life of the tool.
Q: Are air hammers safe?
A: Air hammers are mighty and could be dangerous if you ignore the safety precaution. Be sure you pay attention to safety when working an air hammer, follow the safety tips below:
- Wear safety glasses
- Put on earplugs to avoid injury to the ears from noise pollution
- Unplug the unit when changing the chisel
While operating the tool, position it at an angle away from your eye or others’. That is important because the bits might break and jump towards you or others. No one should stand in the way or in front of it when using it.
Q: Can chisels or other attachments break?
A: Yes, chisels or other parts under stress can break or spring loose. Ensure to fasten all parts tight before using the tool. Also, do not overstress the unit, be sure you bought the right tool for the right workload. If you buy a standard air hammer for a heavy-duty job, it might not survive the stress. When the parts snap or break, the projected portions can cause serious bodily injury.
Q: Quick-change retainers: what do they do?
A: Quick-change retainers are the front-end of the unit. They make changing of chisel fast and hold the chisel in place when the tool is working. The other type of retainer is the spring retainer, which is standard. You can buy the quick-change retainer apart from the device if it does not come with your tool.
Q: While using my air hammers I develop hand fatigue, what is the solution?
A: Hand fatigue often associates with using an air hammer due to the vibration and operational force. However, you can minimize hand fatigue by wearing a special glove with wrist support. Also, while working the unit, change hand position from time to time. Furthermore, do not go for the long hull while working, take breaks often to minimize the stress your hand undergoes.
Q: Can you explain BPM (blow per minute)?
A: BPM or blow per minute is what it states on specifications of air hammers. It means the number of times the piston within the device goes back and forth. The lower the BPM, the harder or more impact its cutting power. (more)
Q: Why is there water in my air lines during summer?
A: During summer, the humidity level is usually high, and this makes more water to condense within your compressor tank. The solutions include:
- Position the air supply lines at an angle back to the compressor.
- Drain the tank of excess water before the compressor is in use. You can do this every morning.
- Empty all rubber hoses of any water within them
Air hammers make your job a lot easy. If you are still using chisel and hammer, you need to step up your game. You can make your job easy by using the right tool. Whether you are a technician, a handyman or a DIY freak, the above-reviewed tools are for you to choose.
Out of the forest of pneumatic hammers listed online or on counters of hardware stores, you can now confidently make a choice. Remember, in choosing the Best Air Hammers, go for one that is durable, reliable and at a reasonable price. Much information is in this review to help you in your buying decision, ensure you use them appropriately.
Why Choose us?
Morning Homestead boasts of a team of highly trained experts that invest their time and efforts in research and product review. Their reviews and top picks are straight to the point and without leaving anything aside. We, therefore, implore you to stick with us as we serve you oven fresh articles regularly. You can invest your time to read our other posts to get a feel of Morning Homestead.
We appreciate you for spending time on this site reading our posts. We leave you with this quote from A. C. Grayling: “To read is to fly: it is to soar to the point of vantage which gives a view over wide terrains of history, human variety, ideas, shared experience and the fruits of many inquiries.” Keep reading and sharing.
Please do not forget to share this post on all available social media platforms for others to benefit.